Craig Adams and Andrew Ladd also scored for Chicago, which has won three in a row and four of five overall. Nikolai Khabibulin made 18 saves in the win for the Blackhawks, who snapped a four-game slide away from home.
Wojtek Wolski, Ian Laperriere and Chris Stewart each scored once for Colorado, which had won two in a row. Defenseman Adam Foote returned from injured reserve, which he had been on since November 24 with neck and back ailments, and recorded an assist.
Peter Budaj made 26 stops in the loss.
In a tie game after two periods, Wolski gave Colorado the edge with a goal shortly into the third. He took a pass in the neutral zone off a turnover, raced past the Chicago defense and ripped a shot past Khabibulin at 3:43 for a 3-2 Avs lead.
But Ladd scored a little more than six minutes later in a similar way, setting up Byfuglien's go-ahead goal.
Martin Havlat's shot from the right circle was blocked by an Avalanche player who slid down on the ice, though Havlat recovered the puck by the right boards. Havlat centered a backhand pass and Byfuglien was there to send the puck past Budaj for the one-goal lead. Khabibulin made several stops with the Colorado net empty to preserve the win.
Adams banged home his own rebound 2:31 into the game to get Chicago on the scoreboard. But Stewart tied the contest just the midway point of the first with a slapshot from the right point that deflected off a Chicago defenseman and went into the left side of the net.
Colorado got a 2-1 edge at the 14:06 mark of the first when a centering pass hit off Laperriere and got past Khabibulin. But Chicago knotted the game at 2-2 at 7:30 of the second period when Byfuglien ripped a shot from the top of the right circle inside the left post.