Dave Bolland, Duncan Keith and Patrick Kane also scored for the Blackhawks, who have won six of their last eight games. Cristobal Huet made 20 saves and Kane added two assists for Chicago, which netted the final four goals of the game, including three in the final period.
Karri Ramo allowed five goals on 49 shots for the lowly Lightning, who fell to 2-6-1 in their last nine games.
Chicago trailed 3-2 in the third period, but Kane's power-play goal 1:46 into the final frame tied the score. Brian Campbell faked a shot along the left side, maneuvered into the lower portion of the circle and passed into the slot for a successful wrister by Kane.
Bolland's 13th goal of 2008-09 proved to be the game-winner. Strong forechecking along the rear boards by Martin Havlat led to his stuffer attempt near the right post. Ramo made the save, but Bolland's rebound attempt from the crease as he was falling found the back of the cage at the 12:46 mark.
Toews' second goal of the game capped the scoring with 4:01 remaining. He held control along the right side, curled inside the near circle and ripped home a wrist shot through traffic for his 20th goal.
Chicago improved to 6-2-2 versus the Eastern Conference this season.
The teams traded goals 65 seconds apart in the opening period.
Keith's seventh goal of the season at the 11:53 mark gave the visitors the lead. Martin Havlat held control of the puck near the low right half-wall and sent the puck toward the low slot for Keith, who was skating through the crease area and redirected the puck into the back of the cage from in close.
Stamkos tied it just over a minute later.
Midway through the second period, with the score knotted at 1-1, Stamkos scored two power-play goals within a 70-second span for a two-goal Tampa Bay advantage.
The Lightning enjoyed a four-minute power play due to a high-sticking double minor called on Craig Adams. The hosts controlled the action in their offensive zone and Vinny Prospal held control along the rear boards. Prospal passed into the left slot for Stamkos, who was left all alone and his wrist shot flew into the back of the net at 10:28.
Tampa Bay remained on the power play and Stamkos cashed in again soon after. Prospal again started the play with control along the right side and he passed back to Steve Eminger near the right point. Eminger quickly sent a soft pass across the high slot for Stamkos, whose one-timer from the top of the left circle lit the lamp.
However, Toews' tally with 48 seconds remaining before the second intermission brought the visitors within 3-2. While on the power play, Toews held puck control along the goal line to the right of the net and pushed the puck into the crease, where it deflected off the skate of Tampa Bay blueliner Lukas Krajicek and crossed the goal line.