From omicron to BA.2 to BA.5 to BA.2.75, the list of COVID variants and subvariants continues to grow, but with newer versions outcompeting others, which ones are still around and spreading in the U.S.?
Here's a list of the most common subvariants of omicron currently spreading, according to the CDC, and information on when they originated, the threats that they pose, and what those numbers mean.
Omicron Subvariants in the US as of July
By the spring of 2022, the BA.2 omicron subvariant had become the dominant strain of COVID in the United States, making up more than 73% of cases in early April.
Along with BA.2.12.1, this strain helped drive cases upward in the spring, and was 50% more transmissible than the B.1.1.529 subvariant, according to the White House’s chief medical adviser, Dr. Anthony Fauci.
Fortunately for most patients, infection with the BA.1 or B.1.1.529 subvariants generally provided good protection against BA.2.
BA.2 now makes up just 1.4% of COVID cases in the United States.
Many residents may have been confused by BA.2.12.1’s lengthy identification number, but the reason for it is simple: this subvariant is the 12th lineage to branch off from the original BA.2, and there were also branches off of that, hence the "1" at the end of its designation.
The subvariant was the dominant strain of COVID in the United States for several months.
Even with the emergence of other variants, this strain still makes up 17.3% of COVID cases as of this week, making it the second-most prevalent subvariant in the United States.
The fourth “version,” for lack of a better term, of the omicron variant is now one of the more prevalent strains of the virus in the United States, making up 16.3% of cases as of Tuesday.
The BA.5 subvariant is now the dominant strain of COVID in the United States, making up nearly two-thirds of cases, and this particular version of the virus is more adept at evading preexisting immunity than other strains.
Changes to the virus have allowed it to escape antibodies from vaccinations and from previous COVID infections, even cases that resulted from other omicron subvariants, according to CDC data.
As a result, researchers fear that more individuals may be sickened by this subvariant, but vaccinations and previous illness still appear to protect against severe illness or hospitalization, officials say.
This latest subvariant of the virus has been detected in the United States, but was first identified in India, where it is causing a spike in cases.
Officials say that this subvariant, which came from the BA.2 version of omicron, could have similar ability to evade antibodies to that of the BA.4 and BA.5 subvariants, but more worryingly it could also evade antibodies created by infection from the original BA.2 strain, officials say.
Still, all information on BA.2.75 is very preliminary, and officials caution that there have not been enough cases in the United States to get an accurate picture of just how big a threat the subvariant could become. The CDC has not yet started tracking this subvariant on its list.
The latest mutant has been spotted in several distant states in India, and appears to be spreading faster than other variants there, said Lipi Thukral, a scientist at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in New Delhi. It’s also been detected in about 10 other countries, including Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom and Canada. Two cases were recently identified on the West Coast of the U.S., and Helix identified a third U.S. case last week.
Chicago Department of Public Health Commissioner Dr. Allison Arwady said that while the new variant has so far been detected in some cases in the U.S. and around the world "we probably will see more cases."
"Whether it'll compete with BA.5 we just don't know," she said.