The controversial drilling practice known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, requires injecting huge amounts of water, sand, and chemicals at high pressure thousands of feet beneath the earth's surface to extract reserves of natural gas.
The Illinois House overwhelmingly approved a plan Thursday that would regulate high-volume oil and gas drilling in the state, hoping to kick-start an industry that proponents say could bring thousands of jobs to economically struggling southern Illinois.
The measure -- SB1715 -- passed 108-9 and headed to the Senate, where it was expected to pass.
Illinois' regulatory bill, drafted with the help of industry and some environmental groups, has been touted as one of the toughest in the nation. But while supporters say hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," would generate tens of thousands of jobs, opponents — fearful that it could cause pollution and deplete water resources — have been pushing for a two-year moratorium to allow more time to study health and environmental issues.
Fracking uses high-pressure mixtures of water, sand or gravel and chemicals are used to crack rock formations deep underground and release oil and natural gas.
Among the provisions in the proposed regulation are requirements that drillers publicly disclose the chemicals they use and that they test water before and after fracking. They also would be liable for any water pollution.
"This bill is not about a choice about fracking in Illinois or no fracking in Illinois," said a bill sponsor, Democratic Rep. Ann Williams of Chicago. "It is about fracking with no regulation or fracking with the strictest laws in the country."
Energy companies are eyeing the New Albany shale formation in southern Illinois, where they believe there are significant oil reserves at depths of 5,000 feet or more.
Although the measure was supported by more than 50 House members who signed off as sponsors of the bill, its road to a full vote in the House was not easy. A set of rules requiring energy companies to hire a state-licensed water well driller delayed the vote for more than a month.
Two bills proposing a moratorium were offered, but none have gained traction despite the endorsement of the state's powerful House Speaker Michael Madigan, a Chicago Democrat.
Opponents also say the proposed regulatory legislation would leave Illinois communities with no control over the practice. Activists against the bill had coordinated intense lobbying efforts.
After the vote, a woman yelled: "This bill is a betrayal to democracy... this bill is a betrayal to the children of Illinois."
She was removed from the chamber by two guards.
Gov. Pat Quinn has praised the measure as a jobs bill and was swift praise lawmaker's vote.
"This legislation will unlock the potential for thousands of jobs in Southern Illinois, while ensuring that our state has the nation's strongest environmental protections in place for this industry," he said in a statement.
This report was originally published on May 30, 2013.